Buckle from the first hoard of Coşoveni, 5th century, possibly of Taifal origin, from Coşoveni, Oltenia, Romania
. Bucharest, Muzeul Naţional de Istorie a României.
From History (Rerum Gestarum Libri XXXI [c. 391 AD]), Book 31, Chapter 9, by Ammianus Marcellinus, translated by J. C. Rolfe, Volume 3, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1939).
We have learned that these Taifali were a shameful folk, so sunken in a life of shame and obscenity, that in their country the boys are coupled with the men in a union of unmentionable lust, to consume the flower of their youth in the polluted intercourse of those paramours. We may add that, if any grown person alone catches a boar or kills a huge bear, he is purified thereby from the shame of unchastity.
Sarmatian riders depicted on Trajan's Column. Detail from the relief band with scenes from Trajan's Dacian campaigns. Roman
, 113 AD. Plaster cast made in 1861 after the marble original. Rome, Museo della Civiltà Romana, No. 3044.