BoyWiki:Texte de la GNU Free Documentation License

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Vous trouverez sur cette page le texte intégral de la GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL), version 1.2. Ce texte est en anglais car seule la GFDL originale, disponible sur le site officiel, fait foi en cas de besoin.

Plusieurs traductions non officielles sont consultables sur le même site mais les seules traductions françaises actuellement disponibles ne le sont qu'en version 1.1. Ces versions sont utiles à la compréhension de la License de Documentation Libre mais ne doivent donc pas être prises en référence.

GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.2, November 2002

Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or
other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of
freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and
redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either
commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License
preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for
their work, while not being considered responsible for
modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that
derivative works of the document must themselves be free in
the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License,
which is a copyleft license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals
for free software, because free software needs free
documentation: a free program should come with manuals
providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this
License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for
any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it
is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or


This License applies to any manual or other work, in any
medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder
saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License.
Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license,
unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions
stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such
manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify
or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under
copyright law.

A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing
the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or
with modifications and/or translated into another language.

A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter
section of the Document that deals exclusively with the
relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to
the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and
contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall
subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of
mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of
legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political
position regarding them.

The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections,
in the notice that says that the Document is released under
this License. If a section does not fit the above definition
of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as
Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.
If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then
there are none.

The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the
notice that says that the Document is released under this
License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a
Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable
copy, represented in a format whose specification is available
to the general public, that is suitable for revising the
document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for
images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for
drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is
suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic
translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text
formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged
to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is
not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used
for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not
"Transparent" is called "Opaque".

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include
plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input
format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed
for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats
include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary
formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word
processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing
tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated
HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for
output purposes only.

The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page
itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold,
legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the
title page. For works in formats which do not have any title
page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most
prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the
beginning of the body of the text.

A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in
parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another
language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name
mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
"Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such
a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.

The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the
notice which states that this License applies to the Document.
These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by
reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming
warranties: any other implication that these Warranty
Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning
of this License.


You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License,
the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this
License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies,
and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct
or control the reading or further copying of the copies you
make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in
exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number
of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated
above, and you may publicly display copies.


If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that
commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more
than 100, and the Document's license notice requires
Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry,
clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts
on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.
Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the
publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the
full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they
preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these
conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to
fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as
fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest
onto adjacent pages.

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
numbering more than 100, you must either include a
machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque
copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network
location from which the general network-using public has
access to download using public-standard network protocols a
complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added
material. If you use the latter option, you must take
reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of
Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent
copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until
at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the
authors of the Document well before redistributing any large
number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an
updated version of the Document.


You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that
you release the Modified Version under precisely this License,
with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document,
thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified
Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you
must do these things in the Modified Version:

A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
   distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
   previous versions (which should, if there were any, be
   listed in the History section of the Document). You may use
   the same title as a previous version if the original
   publisher of that version gives permission.

B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
   entities responsible for authorship of the modifications
   in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
   principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
   authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release
   you from this requirement.

C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
   Modified Version, as the publisher.

D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
   adjacent to the other copyright notices.

F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
   notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
   Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown
   in the Addendum below.

G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
   Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
   license notice.

H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its
   Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title,
   year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as
   given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled
   "History" in the Document, create one stating the title,
   year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on
   its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
   Version as stated in the previous sentence.

J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the
   Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the
   Document, and likewise the network locations given in the
   Document for previous versions it was based on. These may
   be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network
   location for a work that was published at least four years
   before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of
   the version it refers to gives permission.

K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or
   "Dedications" Preserve the Title of the section, and
   preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each
   of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications
   given therein.

L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
   unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section
   numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the
   section titles.

M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
   may not be included in the Modified Version.

N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
   "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant

O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
material copied from the Document, you may at your option
designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do
this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in
the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be
distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it
contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by
various parties--for example, statements of peer review or
that the text has been approved by an organization as the
authoritative definition of a standard.

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover
Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to
the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.
Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover
Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one
entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the
same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by
the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add
another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
License give permission to use their names for publicity for
or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released
under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above
for modified versions, provided that you include in the
combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the
original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant
Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that
you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License,
and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with
a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with
the same name but different contents, make the title of each
such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses,
the name of the original author or publisher of that section
if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to
the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the
license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
"History" in the various original documents, forming one
section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections
Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled
"Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
documents released under this License, and replace the
individual copies of this License in the various documents
with a single copy that is included in the collection,
provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
distribute it individually under this License, provided you
insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and
follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim
copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume
of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate"
if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to
limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what
the individual works permit. When the Document is included in
an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works
in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of
the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to
these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less
than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover
Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within
the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the
Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on
printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of
section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations
requires special permission from their copyright holders, but
you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections
in addition to the original versions of these Invariant
Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and
all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty
Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original
English version of this License and the original versions of
those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original version of this
License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will

If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
"Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing
the actual title.


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the
Document except as expressly provided for under this License.
Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute
the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your
rights under this License. However, parties who have received
copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have
their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in
full compliance.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such
new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version,
but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
version of this License "or any later version" applies to it,
you have the option of following the terms and conditions
either of that specified version or of any later version that
has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software
Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number
of this License, you may choose any version ever published
(not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a
copy of the License in the document and put the following
copyright and license notices just after the title page:

    Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify
    this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation
    License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the
    Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no
    Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
    A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
    "GNU Free Documentation License".

If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and
Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
    the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover
    Texts being LIST.

If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some
other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives
to suit the situation.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code,
we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your
choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public
License, to permit their use in free software.