Draft/Pro-pedo activism (from thefullwiki)

From BoyWiki

Source: http://www.thefullwiki.org/Pro-pedophile_activism

Pro-pedo activism (short for "pro-pedophilia activism") is a misnomer, as just what is signified by the expression is unclear.

Anti-pro-pedo activists (falsely) claim that pro-pedo activists are simply arguing to make child-rape legal. In the Anti-pro-pedo activists minds, this means that the pro-pedo activists are simply arguing to lower the age of consent so they can rape younger children, rather than what is actually the case, which is ensuring that sentient young people can exercise their right to agency, including their right to sexual agency.

Of course, pedophiles and pederasts are operating partly out of self-interest--just as Black slaves argued against slavery out of self-interest. Those sexually attracted to young people are very strongly impacted by laws which restrict the rights of children to associate with whomever they wish, including the right to touch and be touched by whom they wish.

(The following needs to be heavily edited--it is a semi-raw dump from a Wikipedia article dated around 2005, before pro-pedo activism was officially banned from Wikipedia.)

(Redirected to <a title="Age_of_consent_reform" href="/Age_of_consent_reform">Age of consent reform</a> article)

Age of consent reform refers to efforts to change <a href="/Age_of_consent" title="Age of consent">age of consent</a> laws, whether to raise or lower or abolish the age of consent, or to change the ways in which the laws are applied. These efforts vary greatly in intensity and popularity, and have manifested in a variety of forms, such as legislation for close-in-age exemptions to age of consent laws, advocacy to change the way age of consent laws are examined in court, to lower or increase the age limits, and increase or reduce related penalties. Some organized efforts have occurred ranging from academic discussions to political petitions and <a href="/Pedophile" title="Pedophile" class="mw-redirect">pedophile</a> advocacy groups.

Close-in-age exemptions

A number of jurisdictions have adopted close-in-age exemptions

in recent decades. These are frequently called Romeo and Juliet exemptions. These exemptions to age of consent laws take account of varying circumstances such as sex between a minor under the age of consent and a much older adult, a minor under the age of consent and a person of the same age or older by only a small amount, whether or not under the age of consent, or a minor under

the age of consent and another minor under the age of consent.

In a typical jurisdiction with close-in-age exemptions, sexual

intercourse between (for example) a 14-year-old and a 21-year-old might be a criminal offence on the latter's part, while sexual intercourse between (for example) two 14-year-olds would not constitute a criminal offence by either party. Other jurisdictions have laws that allow a minor under 17 and a adult over 18 to consent to sexual intercourse based on age difference, or (for example) to allow a 3 to 5 years age difference (16-year-old and a 19-year-old or a 15-year-old and a 20-year-old). Some see this as a means to allow young people to have a normal sexual development while protecting them from dangerous and violent sexual


Initiatives to raise ages of consent

Examples of legislative initiatives to raise the age of consent

that have been considered or enacted include those in <a href="/Georgia_(U.S._state)" title="Georgia (U.S. state)">Georgia</a> (USA)<a href="#cite_note-0">[1]</a> and in

Canada.<a href="#cite_note-1">[2]</a><a href="#cite_note-2">[3]</a>

Kerala, India

In January 2004, a <a href="/Division_bench" title="Division bench">Division bench</a> of the <a href="/Kerala" title="Kerala">Kerala</a>'s <a href="/Kerala_High_Court" title="Kerala High Court">High Court</a> in Southern <a href="/India" title="India">India</a> suggested that the age of

consent should be raised from 16 to 18 in that state. Justice R. Basant said he considered "illogic(al)" that a legal system in which an age of 18 is used for other purposes – like the Indian Majority Act, the Contract Act, the <a href="/Juvenile_Justice_Act" title="Juvenile Justice Act">Juvenile Justice Act</a>, the <a href="/Child_Marriage_in_India" title="Child Marriage in India" class="mw-redirect">Child Marriage Restraint Act</a> and the Representation of People Act – has a different approach in the case

of sexual consent.<a href="#cite_note-3">[4]</a>.

Georgia, USA

In June 2005, a bill was proposed before the <a href="/148th_General_Assembly_of_the_State_of_Georgia" title="148th General Assembly of the State of Georgia" class="mw-redirect">General Assembly of Georgia</a> (USA) to raise

the age of consent from 16 to 18.<a href="#cite_note-4">[5]</a> The

proposal is still being analyzed by local politicians.<a href="#cite_note-5">[6]</a>


In Canada, the age of consent was raised from 14 to 16 on 1 May 2008 (in 1890 it was raised from 12 to 14).

In June 2006, the Canadian government proposed a bill to raise

the age of consent from 14 to 16, while creating a near-age exemption for sex between 14-15 year olds and partners up to 5 years older, and keeping an existing near-age clause for sex between 12-13 year olds and partners up to 2 years older. The initiative also maintains a temporary exception for already existing marriages of 14 and 15 year olds, but forbids new

marriages like these in the future.<a href="#cite_note-ctv.ca-6">[7]</a>

Initiatives to lower or abolish ages of consent

Pedophile advocacy groups

During the late 1950s to early 1990s, several <a href="/Pedophile" title="Pedophile" class="mw-redirect">pedophile</a> membership organizations

advocated lowering or abolishing age of consent laws<a href="#cite_note-jenkins2006-7">[8]</a><a href="#cite_note-spiegel-8">[9]</a><a href="#cite_note-9">[10]</a><a href="#cite_note-Eichewald4-10">[11]</a> to legalize <a href="/Sexual_activities" title="Sexual activities" class="mw-redirect">sexual activities</a> involving an adult and a child (defined as <a href="/Child_sexual_abuse" title="Child sexual abuse">child sexual abuse</a> by all modern cultures, socially, medically, and legally<a href="#cite_note-Levesque-11">[12]</a><a href="#cite_note-UNchildren-12">[13]</a>). As one of their arguments to lower or abolish the age of consent, members of pedophile advocacy groups promoted their belief that children are psychologically capable of consenting to sexual interactions with adults<a href="#cite_note-dallam-13">[14]</a> (although this opinion is contrary to legal and scientific consensus <a href="#cite_note-14">[15]</a><a href="#cite_note-15">[16]</a>), and they often portrayed themselves as fighting for the right of children to engage in what the activists consider to be consensual sex with adults.<a href="#cite_note-Eichewald4-10">[11]</a><a href="#cite_note-dallam-13">[14]</a> Some activists tried to link their goals with those of the early <a href="/LGBT_social_movements" title="LGBT social movements">LGBT social movements</a>, but in the course of time those movements

universally rejected this linkage.<a href="#cite_note-jenkins2006-7">[8]</a><a href="#cite_note-jenkins1992-16">[17]</a><a href="#cite_note-Mirkin-17">[18]</a><a href="#cite_note-Heinze-18">[19]</a>

The age of consent reform efforts of pedophile advocacy groups

such as the <a href="/Danish_Pedophile_Association" title="Danish Pedophile Association">Danish Pedophile Association</a> and the <a href="/North_American_Man/Boy_Love_Association" title="North American Man/Boy Love Association">North American Man/Boy Love Association</a> did not gain any public support<a href="#cite_note-jenkins2006-7">[8]</a><a href="#cite_note-Eichewald4-10">[11]</a><a href="#cite_note-jenkins1992-16">[17]</a><a href="#cite_note-stanton-19">[20]</a><a href="#cite_note-hagan-20">[21]</a> and today those groups that have not dissolved have only minimal membership and have ceased their activities other than through a few websites.<a href="#cite_note-Eichewald4-10">[11]</a><a href="#cite_note-hagan-20">[21]</a><a href="#cite_note-21">[22]</a><a href="#cite_note-22">[23]</a> Beginning in the 1990s, public focus on and disapproval of pedophilia resulted in more stringent legislation and stronger criminal penalties regarding child pornography, child sexual abuse,

and use of the internet to facilitate these offenses.<a href="#cite_note-Mattei-23">[24]</a><a href="#cite_note-Bocij-24">[25]</a><a href="#cite_note-Clark-25">[26]</a>

The Netherlands

<a href="/Partij_voor_Naastenliefde,_Vrijheid_en_Diversiteit" title="Partij voor Naastenliefde, Vrijheid en Diversiteit" class="mw-redirect">Partij voor Naastenliefde, Vrijheid en

Diversiteit</a> (Party for Neighbourly Love, Freedom, and Diversity) is a <a href="/Netherlands" title="Netherlands">Dutch</a><a href="/Political_party" title="Political party">political party</a> founded in 2006.<a href="#cite_note-26">[27]</a> The party currently has no parliamentary representation and did not

receive enough signatures to partake in the 2006 elections.<a href="#cite_note-27">[28]</a>

The PNVD seeks to have the legal age-of-consent lowered to 12,

and, in the long run, completely eliminated, except in dependent or intrafamilial relationships. They also aim to equalize the legal age where one can perform in pornography with the legal

age-of-consent.<a href="#cite_note-platform-28">[29]</a>

The former Dutch <a href="/Pacifist_Socialist_Party" title="Pacifist Socialist Party">Pacifist Socialist Party</a> also supported the lowering of the age of consent to 12.<a href="#cite_note-29">[30]</a>


1977-1979 petitions

In 1977, while a reform in the French penal code was under

discussion in the parliament, a petition was addressed to the parliament calling for the abrogation of several articles of the age-of-consent law and the decriminalization of all consented relations between adults and <a href="/Minor_(law)" title="Minor (law)">minors</a> below the age of fifteen.<a href="#cite_note-30">[31]</a> In 1978 , the petition was discussed in a broadcast by radio <a href="/France_Culture" title="France Culture">France Culture</a> in the program "Dialogues", with the transcript later published under the title <a href="/Sexual_Morality_and_the_Law" title="Sexual Morality and the Law">Sexual Morality and the Law</a> in a book by <a href="/Michel_Foucault" title="Michel Foucault">Michel Foucault</a>. The participants, including Foucault, play-writer/actor <a href="/Jean_Danet" title="Jean Danet">Jean Danet</a> and novelist/gay activist <a href="/Guy_Hocquenghem" title="Guy Hocquenghem">Guy Hocquenghem</a> had all signed the petition. Other signers included philosophers <a href="/Jacques_Derrida" title="Jacques Derrida">Jacques Derrida</a> and <a href="/Louis_Althusser" title="Louis Althusser">Louis Althusser</a> and the <a href="/Pediatrics" title="Pediatrics">pediatrician</a> and child <a href="/Psychoanalysis" title="Psychoanalysis">psychoanalyst</a><a href="/Fran%C3%A7oise_Dolto" title="Françoise Dolto">Françoise


United Kingdom

According to sociologist Matthew Waites, in the 1970s, a number

of grass-roots political actions took place in Britain in favor of lowering the age of consent, that he described as based on claims of children's rights, gay liberation, or, as a way to avoid

unwanted pregnancies or sexually-transmitted diseases.<a href="#cite_note-waites-31">[32]</a>

In September 1974, the United Kingdom's Sexual Law Reform

Society proposed a system in which the age of consent would be replaced with what was called an "age of protection" - if not for all ages below the <a href="/Age_of_majority" title="Age of majority">age of majority</a> (18), then at least for the ages between 14 and 18, in combination with an age of consent of 14. People below this "age of protection" (if totally replacing the age of consent) – or between a lower age of consent and this age of protection -would be subject "to a context in which the onus of proof that valid consent existed would lie with the older

partner".<a href="#cite_note-32">[33]</a><a href="#cite_note-33">[34]</a>

A similar proposal was recommended in May 1974 by the UK's <a href="/Campaign_for_Homosexual_Equality" title="Campaign for Homosexual Equality">Campaign for Homosexual

Equality</a> (CHE). CHE's Working Party on Law Reform suggested a basic age of consent of 16, but 12 "in cases where a defendant

could prove the existence of meaningful consent". <a href="#cite_note-34">[35]</a><a href="#cite_note-35">[36]</a>

The modern Communist Party of Great Britain lists abolition of

age-of-consent laws among its immediate demands, with the added provision that there be alternate legal methods to protect children

from sexual abuse.<a href="#cite_note-36">[37]</a>

In 1976, the British political pressure group <a href="/Liberty_(pressure_group)" title="Liberty (pressure group)">Liberty</a>, under their alternate

name National Council for Civil Liberties, published a report presented to the <a href="/Criminal_Law_Revision_Committee" title="Criminal Law Revision Committee">Criminal Law Revision Committee</a>, proposing – among other things – "a minimum age of 10 in circumstances where both partners were over 10 but below 14". Additionally, "where only one partner was in this age bracket, real proof of consent would be required", and also "an overlap of two years on either side of 14 was proposed to achieve legal

flexibility, such that 12-16 year olds could legally have sex".<a href="#cite_note-37">[38]</a>


<a href="/John_Caldwell_Holt" title="John Caldwell Holt" class="mw-redirect">John Holt</a> (1923 - 1985), an American

teacher who authored Escape from Childhood – The Needs and Rights of Children, stated that "all people, including young people, should have the right to control their own private sex lives and acts". He considers that "it is not the proper business of the state or government to pry into such matters". Holt refutes the concept of child <a href="/Innocence" title="Innocence">innocence</a> and opposes laws on age of consent as unfair and <a href="/Morality" title="Morality">morally


<a href="/Judith_Levine" title="Judith Levine">Judith

Levine</a>, an American journalist and author of <a href="/Harmful_to_Minors" title="Harmful to Minors">Harmful to Minors</a>: The Perils of Protecting Children from Sex, is against the legal regulation of children's involvement in sexual activities.<a href="#cite_note-38">[39]</a> Levine suggests that, if such laws are to exist, an appropriate model would be the legal framework that existed in the Netherlands during the 1990s, now abolished, which required a complaint from a parent or other authority to pursue a prosecution where 12-15 year

olds were involved.<a href="#cite_note-39">[40]</a><a href="#cite_note-40">[41]</a>

British journalist <a href="/Miranda_Sawyer" title="Miranda Sawyer">Miranda Sawyer</a> maintains that the age of

consent should be lowered to 12 in the United Kingdom, arguing that the criminalization of all sexual activity for ages under 16 is

"laughably unrealistic".<a href="#cite_note-41">[42]</a>

American academic <a href="/Jacob_M._Appel" title="Jacob M. Appel">Jacob M. Appel</a> has argued for public

debate and downward revision of the age of consent in the United States in order to bring American law into accord with those of other Western nations. Appel has written that "whether the age of consent should be 16 or 15, or even a year younger, is a complex question that our society needs to address. Keeping the age of consent at 18, as do twelve [American] states, is no more

reasonable that setting it at 10."<a href="#cite_note-42">[43]</a>

See also

  • <a href="/1891_Age_of_Consent_Act" title="1891 Age of Consent Act">1891 Age of Consent Act</a>


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  40. <a href="#cite_ref-39">^</a> WAITES, Matthews. The age of consent – Young people, Sexuality and Citizenship, p. 221. New York: 2005. Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 1-4039-2173-3.
  41. <a href="#cite_ref-40">^</a> LEVINE, Judith (op. cit.), p. 89.
  42. <a href="#cite_ref-41">^</a> SAWYER, Miranda. Newspaper article – 'Sex is not Just for Grown-Ups', The Observer, 2 November 2003, Review section, pp.1-2.
  43. <a href="#cite_ref-42">^</a><a href="/Jacob_M._Appel" title="Jacob M. Appel">Jacob M. Appel</a>, <a href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jacob-m-appel/embracing-teenage-sexuali_b_409136.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">Embracing Teenage Sexuality: Let's Rethink the Age of Consent</a>, Jan 1, 2009

Further reading

  • <a href="http://www.comm.umn.edu/Foucault/ppc.html" class="external text" rel="nofollow">University of Minnesota –

    Dept. of Communications Studies</a> – Detailed summary of the whole book "Politics, Philosophy, Culture", chapter by chapter, including a summary in 9 paragraphs of Chapter 16, "Sexual Morality and

    the Law".
  • HOLT, John. Escape from Childhood – The Needs and Rights of Children. E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.: New York, 1974; Clarke, Irwin & Company Ltd., Toronto/Vancouver, 1974. ISBN 0-525-09955-7