Stefan George

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Stefan George in 1910

Stefan Anton George (July 12, 1868 - December 4, 1933) was a German poet, editor, and translator.

Stefan George and Maximilian Kronberger

Maximilian Kronberger

George's "pederasty"[1] is reflected in works such as Algabal and the love poetry he devoted to a gifted adolescent of his acquaintance named Maximilian Kronberger (April 15, 1888 — April 16, 1904),[2] whom he called "Maximin", and whom he identified as a manifestation of the divine. Maximin was around 14 when he met George.[3] The relevance of George's sexuality to his poetic work has been discussed by contemporary critics, such as Thomas Karlauf and Marita Keilson-Lauritz.[4]

Maximin came to the attention of Stefan George in Munich in 1903 (according to some sources, in March 1902; others cite 1901 as the date of their original meeting); Maximin died unexpectedly of meningitis, on the day after his 16th birthday. He was "idealized [by George] to the point of proclaiming him a god, following his death... the cult of 'Maximin' became an integral part of the George circle’s practice…" [5] The Maximin-Erlebnis certainly provided George with inspiration for his work in subsequent years.

Thirty-three of Kronberger’s poems are included in the posthumously published collective volume, Maximin: Ein Gedenkbuch (now a rare book).[6]


  • 1890: Hymnen ("Hymns"), 18 poems written reflecting Symbolism; dedicated to Carl August Klein; limited, private edition[7]
  • 1891: Pilgerfahrten ("Pilgrimages") limited, private edition[7]
  • 1892: Algabal (1892); illustrated by Melchior Lechter; limited, private edition[7]
  • 1897: Das Jahr der Seele ("The Year of the Soul")[7]
  • 1899: Teppich des Lebens ("The Tapestry of Life")[7]
  • 1900: Hymnen, Pilgerfahrten, and Algabal, a one-volume edition published in Berlin by Georg Bondi which first made George's work available to the public at large[7]
  • 1901: Die Fibel ("Primer"), poems written from 1886-1889[7]
  • 1903: Tage und Taten ("Days and Works"; cf. Hesiod's Works and Days)[7]
  • 1907: Der siebente Ring ("The Seventh Ring")[7]
  • 1913: Der Stern des Bundes ("The Star of the Covenant")[7]
  • 1917: Der Krieg ("The War")[7]
  • 1928: Das neue Reich ("The Kingdom Come")[7]


  • Breuer, Stefan (1996). Ästhetischer Fundamentalismus: Stefan George und der deutsche Antimodernismus. Darmstadt: Primus.
  • Capetanakis, D., 'Stefan George', in Demetrios Capetanakis A Greek Poet In England (1947), p. 72-89
  • Frank, Lore & Sabine Ribbeck (2000). Stefan-George-Bibliographie 1976-1997. Mit Nachträgen bis 1976. Auf der Grundlage der Bestände des Stefan-George-Archivs in der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1951). Stefan George and the theatre. New York: The Modern Language Association (PLMA Publications LXVI:2).
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1959). Stefan George: A study of his early work. Boulder: University of Colorado Press (University of Colorado Studies Series in Language and Literature 7).
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1970). Stefan George. New York: Columbia University Press (Essays on Modern Writers).
  • Goldsmith, Ulrich (1974). Shakespeare and Stefan George: The sonnets. Berne: Franke.
  • Kluncker, Karlhans (1985). "Das geheime Deutschland": Über Stefan George und seinen Kreis. Bonn: Bouvier (Abhandlungen zur Kunst-, Musik- und Literaturwissenschaft 355).
  • Norton, Robert E. (2002). Secret Germany: Stefan George and his Circle. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Schmitz, Victor (1978). Stefan George und Rainer Maria Rilke: Gestaltung und Verinnerlichung. Berne: Wild.
  • Rieckmann, Jens (ed.) (2005). A Companion to the Works of Stefan George. Camden House.
  • Lacchin, Giancarlo (2006). Stefan George e l'antichità. Lineamenti di una filosofia dell'arte. Lugano: University Words.
  • Schefold, Bertram. (2011). Politische Ökonomie als Geisteswissenschaft. Edgar Salin und andere Ökonomen um Stefan George, in Studien zur Entwicklung der ökonomischen Theorie, XXVI. Edited by Harald Hagemann, Duncker & Humblot


  1. Robert E. Norton, Secret Germany: Stefan George and his Circle (Cornell University Press, 2002) page 354
  2. Palmer, Craig B. (2002), "George, Stefan", .
  3. Maximin: Ein Gedenkbuch
  4. See for example, Marita Keilson-Lauritz, "Ubergeschlechtliche Liebe: Stefan George's Concept of Love" (Rieckmann, ed A Companion to the Works of Stefan George (Camden House, 2005)
  5. David Fernbach, 'Prophet‑pariah', New Left Review, vol. 18 (November–December 2002).
  6. Stefan George, comp., Maximin: Ein Gedenkbuch , with illustrations (Ausschmueckung) by Melchior Lechter (Berlin, Blätter für die Kunst, 1907); includes a portrait photograph of Maximin taken by Stefan George; limited edition of 200 numbered copies (to be consulted at Yale University’s Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library in New Haven, Connecticut).
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Stefan George, Poems, Trans. & Ed. Carol North Valhope and Ernst Morwitz. (New York: Pantheon, 1946).

External links